# Mathematics

In Year 1, school build upon the learning that takes place in the Reception year. Some of the main things your child is likely to be taught during their time in Year 1 include: Counting, both forwards and backwards, from any number, including past 100. They are encouraged to count in 2s, 5s and 10s and to find ‘one more’ or ‘one less’ than a number. They begin to use mathematical language such as ‘more’, ‘less’, ‘most’, ‘least’ and ‘equal’

Children work on adding and subtracting one- and two-digit numbers, up to 20 as well as using Use practical apparatus to explore different lengths, weights and volumes. Teachers build upon their language of time, such as ‘yesterday’, ‘before’, days of the week and months of the year and encourage the children to tell the time to the hour and half-hour, including drawing clock faces.

During Key Stage 1, there is a big focus on developing basic number skills. That means securing a good understanding of place value, and recognising number bonds to 20. Practising these skills frequently will help children’s mathematical thinking throughout school. Number bonds are essential to the understanding of maths. Children in Year 2 learn their number bonds to 20, that is being able to quickly recall the total of any two numbers up to 20, e.g. 5 + 9 = 14, rather than having to count on to find the answer.

At the end of Year 2, all children will sit the National Curriculum Tests for Key Stage 1. This will include a short arithmetic test of 15 questions, and a second paper of broader mathematics which will last around 35 minutes.

During the lower Key Stage 2 (Year 3 and Year 4) the focus of mathematics is on the mastery of the four operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) so that children can carry out calculations mentally, and using written methods. In Year 3 your child is likely to be introduced to the standard written column methods of addition and subtraction. Children will also count in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; learn to recognise the place value of digits in three-digit numbers (using 100, 10s and 1s) and read and write numbers up to 1,000.

Children see an improvement in add and subtract numbers mentally as well as learning the 3x, 4x and 8x tables. Equivalent fractions, recognising and showing equivalent fractions with small denominators is included in year 3 as well as the ability to add and subtract simple fractions worth less than one.

By the end of Year 4, children will be expected to know all of their times tables up to 12 x 12 by heart. This means not only recalling them in order but also being able to answer any times table question at random, and also knowing the related division facts. For example, in knowing that 6 x 8 = 48, children can also know the related facts that 8 x 6 = 48 and that 48 ÷ 6 = 8 and 48 ÷ 8 = 6. This expertise will be particularly useful when solving larger problems and working with fractions. Pupils will be able to convert between different measures, such as kilometres to metres or hours to minutes as well as calculate the perimeter of shapes - made of squares and rectangles. They can find the area of rectangular shapes by counting squares. In May 2020 children in Year 4 will take a new multiplication test.

During the years of upper Key Stage 2 (Year 5 and Year 6), children use their knowledge of number bonds and multiplication tables to tackle more complex problems, including larger multiplication and division, and meeting new material. In Year 5, this includes more work on calculations with fractions and decimals, for example converting between improper fractions and mixed numbers, add and subtract simple fractions with related denominators and converting decimals to fractions.

By the end of Year 6, children are expected to be confident with the use of all four standard methods for written calculations, and to have secured their knowledge of the key number facts for the four operations. Their work will focus more on fractions, ratio, proportion and the introduction of algebra.

In May of Year 6, children will take an arithmetic test of thirty minutes, and two broader mathematics tests of forty minutes each. These will be sent away for marking, with the results coming back before the end of the year. Your child’s teacher will also make an assessment of whether or not your child has reached the expected standard by the end of the Key Stage.